Over a decade, the four major and key technologies that contribute an effective cloud computing are the Virtualization, Multi-tenancy, Web services and less expensive hardware. The fast growth of cloud computing was possible only through these key technological enablers. This advancement in the technology resulted in the collaborative enablement, reduced cost, greater speed and expansion in computing.
Virtualization has been in real world since the time of mainframe computers. In the recent days, virtualization technology is being used for cloud computing to create a virtual reality of a physical computer with system-defined resources. This allows the distribution of the machine based resources on the applications and permits for effective reconfiguration as required. The virtual machine can be reused many times representing the system that can allow a greater computational power. The main advantage of virtualization is the flexibility of creating multiple number of virtual machines between distinct servers. This technology involves an individual consideration between the actual hardware and the software applications. With the use of existing hardware, the efficiency is improved and also to create a possibility for more production of the resources.
Multi- tenancy is a technology where several clients concurrently handle the same resource without interrupting other’s data. Different clients use a single application on the server. Each client is considered as a tenant. Tenants are given access to personalize the parts of the application like making few changes on the user interface which does not affect the application’s code. Privacy is ensured by setting up authentication protocols. This results in using a minimum hardware resources. Multi-tenancy is cost effective as the costs which involve the software development and maintenance are shared. There are multiple levels in implementing multi-tenancy which depends on the deployment model of the cloud.
Web services is a technology where the software system allows the communication between two systems in a network. This technology facilitates a consistent platform to the customers which allows them to access the applications. The system is materialistic towards the machine configuration, system firewalls and various other components which communicate in the server. XML is used for data tagging, SOAP is used for data transfer while WSDL is used for service description by the system. The system does not individually contain any GUI features but most of the cloud service providers facilitate with specific functionalities by integrating GUI applications onto a web page.
The hardware has been significantly inexpensive while there is a noticeable increase in the speed and efficiency of the processing. This technology has improved so quickly that it made a way for higher density servers. These servers closely pack computing power into a small and single area. The multi-core processor systems are present within these servers. These help the servers to perform an accurate parallel computation at a high speed. These technologies have transformed the development of software application which leads to the universal spread of cloud computing, back-up and storage.